Benefits & management of poultry manure | MorungExpress
Poultry is now one of the fastest growing segments of the agricultural sector in India. While agricultural crop production has increased at the rate of 1.5-2.0% per year, egg production has increased at the rate of 8% per year. India has the largest cattle population in the world. India produces about 5.3 million tons of meat and 75 billion eggs per year. Haryana, West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh are the leaders in poultry meat production in the country. India exported meat and poultry products worth around USD 5 billion in 2014-2015.
The animal production system, especially in the hilly regions of Nagaland state, is unique and different from other parts of the country. Farmers depend on locally available resources. The organized poultry sector in Nagaland consists of only 1.6% broilers and 0.8% laying hens to meet the demand for eggs and meat required for nearly 100% of the non-vegetarian population. Commercial scale exploitation for any component of livestock production is rarely undertaken by farmers or any private entrepreneur. Poultry farming could provide an opportunity for self-employment among educated unemployed youth in Nagaland. On the other hand, organic farming in Nagaland has very promising opportunities and covers about 13,000 hectares in 241 villages and 13,500 farmers are engaged in such cultivation.
Agriculture in Nagaland is a default organic state as the region was unaffected by the wave of green revolution across India. Organic farming has always advocated the use of farmyard manure, compost, poultry manure, biogas slurry, vermicompost, green manures, biofertilizers, crop residues, etc. Therefore, it is extremely important to combine technology to produce good quality organic manure with available agricultural resources like in-situ poultry manure to reduce the harmful effects of chemical fertilizers and promote organic farming as a business. in a state like Nagaland.
Backyard poultry is generally kept by small marginal farmers in Nagaland and includes few birds, mainly for home consumption and very small quantities are sold commercially. Poultry farming practiced by rural and tribal farmers under a free range or backyard or semi-intensive system is generally referred to as rural poultry farming. Chicken manure odor is caused by the nitrogen in their manure volatilizing into ammonia gas, the larger scale environmental impacts of chicken on local air quality and waterways may not be as relevant for small farms, but the accumulation of ammonia in the poultry house can have negative effects. the impact on animal health once it reaches a concentration of 10 ppm, storage and management of solid waste also cause odors. The breeding of flies and rodents, etc. is another problem in poultry farms. Poultry waste can be utilized by turning it into poultry manure. However, the value of one ton of dried poultry manure is equivalent to 100 kg of urea (46 kg N), 150 kg of super phosphate (16 kg P2O5), 50 kg of potash (60 kg K2O), 125 kg of calcium carbonate, 30 kg sulfur, 12 kg sodium chloride, 10 kg magnesium sulphate, 5 kg ferrous sulphate, 1 kg manganese sulphate, zinc sulphate and other trace elements are available at a cheaper price than other inputs available on the market.
Chicken Manure Preparation –
1) Chicken droppings (most suitable type is broiler manure) should be collected and mixed thoroughly with chopped (size
2) The mixture of chicken waste and carbonaceous vegetable waste should be piled up in the shade. The moisture content of the pile should be maintained between 50 and 60%.
3) Periodic watering should be done once every 15 days and turning should be done on the 21st, 35th and 42nd days of composting (avoid turning during the first 3 weeks of composting).
4) Within 50 days, the materials are converted into mature compost with the following nutrient contents; 1.89% N, 1.83% P, 1.34% K, C/N ratio 12.20%.
Advantages – The NPK ratio of chicken manure ranges from 3-2.5-1.5 to 6-4-3. Loss of N from poultry waste can be effectively conserved by composting with carbonaceous materials like coir pith or paddy straw, wood chips and serve as a good source of organic nutrients for agricultural fields. It can be used as an environmentally friendly technique for converting poultry waste into valuable compost. In order for the organic nutrients present in poultry waste to be available to plants, the waste must be composted appropriately to minimize ammonia volatilization.
Tips to remember
1) An elevated shady spot is fine.
2) Within 10-15 days, the temperature of the heap will rise to the maximum. If the temperature drops below 50oC, the piles should be spread out and moistened with water to bring the moisture content to 60%.
3) The color of the compost will change from brown to black. Manure compost will be odorless.
4) The volume of the compost heap will be reduced to 1/3.
5) The temperature of the heap will be the same as the ambient air temperature and stable.
6) Cured compost will be light and fine in texture.
7) The moisture content of the pile can be measured using a moisture meter or by taking a handful of compost from the pile and squeezing it with your fingers. If excess water drips from the compost, it is considered to contain > 60% moisture. If a small amount of water oozes out in the form of drops, the moisture content is considered optimal, i.e. 60%.
8) Each compost pile should have a minimum of one ton to retain heat for post-decomposition. Chicken manure must be fully composted for safe use in flower beds or fields.
Application – Chicken waste can be applied as a good organic fertilizer at the rate of 2 tons (2000 kg)/ha.
Limitation – For commercial scale, uninterrupted availability of raw material must be ensured for continuous production.
Article provided by Meryani M Lotha, Z Kawikhonliu, Khumukcham Pristina Devi from ICAR Center Nagaland, Medziphema.